functional way doing array stuff/ lambda functions

cym13 via Digitalmars-d-learn digitalmars-d-learn at
Sat Dec 12 15:36:43 PST 2015

On Saturday, 12 December 2015 at 23:10:21 UTC, Namal wrote:
> Hello guys,
> I am still uncertain how to do it right when it comes to lambda 
> functions.

If you are looking for the functionnal way I'd advise that you 
start by
looking up three functions in a language-agnostic way: filter, 
map and
reduce. The filter/map/reduce pattern is very common and most 
functions can be emulated using them. For that reason they exist 
in almost
any high-level language. Once you know how to use them well the 
rest is

As a rule of thumb:

- If you have a set of data (for example integers) and want a 
smaller set of
   data that match some property (for example odd integers) then 
the function
   to use is "filter". Filter will take a function, use that 
function on each
   element of the set one at a time, and if it returns false drop 
the element
   in order to return a new set of data matching the property. For 

     auto oddData = data.filter!(x => x%2 == 1);

- If you have a set of things (say integers) that you want to 
transform into
   another thing without changing the number of elements in your 
set (say you
   want the set of the doubles of each of your integers) then 
"map" is the way
   to go. Map will take a function, apply it to each element of 
the set and
   return the set of the results. For example:

     auto doubles =!(x => x*2);

- If you have a set of data that you want to combine together 
using some rule
   (for exemple, to get their product) in order to reduce it to 
one thing then
   "reduce" is the way to go. It's also called accumulate or fold 
in other
   languages. Reduce will take a function and a seed and pass the 
seed and the
   elements of your set in the function, the result becomming the 
next seed.

> For instance: how do I multiply all the elements in an array ?
> int product(const ref int[] arr){
> 	int p = 1;
> 	foreach(i;arr)
> 		p*=i;
> 	return p;
> }

Here is a good case for reduce. In D it returns a lazy range 
(meaning the
result isn't actually computed until you ask for its value), you 
can use
.array to force its evaluation.

So, in your example:

int product(const ref int[] arr) {
     import std.array:     array;
     import std.algorithm: reduce;

     arr = arr.reduce!((p, i) => p*i).array;

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