Nested Classes with inheritance

Era Scarecrow rtcvb32 at
Sun Mar 20 16:16:44 UTC 2022

On Sunday, 20 March 2022 at 05:44:44 UTC, Salih Dincer wrote:
> On Sunday, 20 March 2022 at 01:28:44 UTC, Era Scarecrow wrote:
>> Inheritance and Polymorphism is one of the hardest things to 
>> grasp mostly because examples they give in other books of 
>> 'objects' is so far unrelated to software that it doesn't 
>> really compare.
> You are right, difficult model yet so abeyant. Moreover, there 
> is a lot of freedom given in D. I think OOP alone is not worth 
> 5 cents without design patterns.
> OOP can be aggressive like a dog. I think D should be a little 
> more rigid on OOP.

  Actually one good example for Objects is a game, specifically 
Magic The Gathering.

  MTG is a card game, of that everyone knows. But there's so many 
effects. When it comes into play, when it goes to the graveyard, 
if it gets exiled, cost to cast it from the gaveyard/exile, 
tapping, untapping, paying and tapping to do an ability, milling 
cards, drawing cards, scrying cards, attacking without untapping, 
deathtouch, islandwalk. Then there's enchantments, equipment, 
passive always active abilities (*all your creatures get +0/+1*) 
and a myriad of other things.

  Now with that out of the way making a base 'card' with all it's 
actions as a mere interface and then making each card 
individually OR inheriting from a base card using polymorphism 
would be a great way to do things.

  Going the one route

abstract class Card {
   string name, description, picture, quote;
   string types; //Green Insect Token, Indestructable, etc
   int basePower, baseToughness;
   Card[] enchantments; //affecting this card specifically
   static Card[] globalEnchantments, //affecting all cards
                 playerEnchantments; //affecting only my own cards

   //When a card leaves play remove from enchantments list.
   //globals will just remove from the static list
   void purgeCard(Card target);

   //calculate power
   int power() {
     int t;
     foreach(x; enchantments) {t += x.basePower;}
     foreach(x; globalEnchantments) {t += x.basePower;}
     foreach(x; playerEnchantments) {t += x.basePower;}
     return t;
   int toughness();
   //etc for a base class with expected functional hooks for 
combat, instants etc.

class Wurm : Card {
   this() {
     name = "Greater Wurm";
     quote = "When the Wurm comes, all flee it's destruction";
     basePower = 3;
     baseToughness = 3;

   //no tap or other abilities, left blank

class Beetle : Card {
   Card original;

   this(Card target) {
     description = "The target card becomes a 0/1 indestructible 
     //code to swap original and target

   ~this() {    //unswap  }

   override int power(){return 0;}
   override int toughness(){return 1;}

class Sword : Card {
   this() {
     name="Soldier's sword";
     description = "Enchanted creature gets +2/0";
     basePower = 2;

   this(Card target) {
     target.enchantments ~= this;

Here you have a base card to work with, a monster, enchantment 
and an override.

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